By Fredrick J. Long
Pauline scholarship has regularly interpreted 2 Corinthians as a later editorial composite of numerous letters. Fredrick lengthy situates the textual content inside Classical literary and rhetorical conventions and argues for its harmony established upon a variety of parallels with historic apology within the culture of Andocides, Socrates, Isocrates and Demosthenes. He presents a entire survey and rigorous style research of historic forensic discourse in help of his claims, and demonstrates how the unified message of Paul's letter will be recovered.
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Extra resources for Ancient Rhetoric and Paul's Apology: The Compositional Unity of 2 Corinthians (Society for New Testament Studies Monograph Series)
7; Dem. 9; Hyp. 4; Lys. 1). In numerous instances, however, another critical dimension to the allegations existed. Accusations were also formulated for political purposes, to malign the character of the accused in order to weaken their testimony in another legal case or to render them and their proposed political policies undesirable (Hunter, 1990). Whenever beneficial, this underlying motivation was exposed (or even manufactured) by the accused as a defensive measure. Hyperides’ Defense of Euxenippus is such an example.
Forensic schools in Rome Competing schools of forensic rhetoric flourished in the Roman Empire. Kennedy (1994, p. ” Then, during Claudius’ reign, forensic orators could once again charge fees for their services, which attests to the vitality of forensic oratory (Kennedy, 1972, p. 437). Greco-Roman education in the second sophistic movement The second sophistic movement, beginning sometime in the second century BC and extending well into the new millennium, invigorated interest in rhetoric (Enos, 1980; cf.
16). Gorgias was not alone in publishing fictitious speeches treating mythological, legendary, and heroic figures. Alcidamas (fifth/fourth century BC) wrote Odysseus and Ajax. Isocrates also produced Helen, which advanced his educational ideology (see T. Poulakos, 1989). , Antisthenes, ca. 445–ca. 360 BC) who wrote on these and other mythological or heroic figures. One favorite topic was the defense of Socrates (or his accusation, as Polycrates is credited in Isoc. 4). George A. Kennedy (1963, p.