Stephen J. Lee's Aspects of European History 1789-1980 (University PDF

By Stephen J. Lee

During this sequel to his well known elements of eu background, 1494 - 1789, Stephen J. Lee charts the main in most cases encountered themes of 19th and 20th century background, from the origins of the French Revolution, throughout the social and political reforms and upheavals of the final centuries to the current. valuable and available, the booklet contains: * an invigorating consultant and sound resource of heritage fabric * brief analytical chapters* an interpretative method of historical past, supplying various viewpoints on every one topic* either a large survey and particular experiences* stimulation for student's skill to enhance and make clear topic* a cautious constitution which aids notetaking, training of essays and revision. Any scholar of ecu background should want to have this booklet at their side throughout their direction reports.

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To Napoleon the rulers of Europe had, by 1813, become the revolutionaries. 3 Napoleon became no less intensely disliked by the European peoples. 11 Despite his dynastic interests he did continue the work of the Revolution by reforming institutions throughout the Grand Empire. His positive achievements included the abolition of serfdom where it still existed in Germany and Italy, and the introduction of the Civil Code, which had already been applied in France. At the same time, however, he strongly resisted any move towards ‘popular sovereignty’,12 which he associated with the ‘principle of rebellion’.

In a year which brought for Britain a chronic shortage of grain and the most unfavourable trade Aspects of european history 1789–1980 22 figures of the entire war, he allowed selected imports from Britain on licence, together with the export of grain supplies from France. Napoleon’s reasoning was understandable. French commercial interests were also suffering and the selective re-establishment of contacts with Britain would bring relief to French traders and farmers. 18 The Continental System had a devastating effect on Napoleon’s power and reputation in Europe.

By far the most militant of the revolutionaries of 1848 were the artisans, especially metalworkers in Paris, and weavers in Berlin. They had been a volatile element of the population for several decades because everywhere they were confronted by the problems brought about by economic changes. Increased production in every major European state reduced the emphasis on skilled labour and opened a wide gap between masters and journeymen. A potent revolutionary factor has always been the deterioration of once acceptable conditions and the removal of a long-established means of upward social and economic mobility (see Chapter 1); this was becoming increasingly common by the mid-nineteenth century as industrialization made the progression from journeyman to master more difficult, and threatened to depress the skilled worker to the level of labourer.

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